General issues: Sultanate 1925-1926, Kingdom of Nejd & Hejaz 1927-1932
Country name on general issues: Nejd in Arabic, Hejaz & Nejd in Arabic, Hejaz & Nejd, Hejaz & Nedjde
Special issues: Local issues Jeddah 1925, local issues Medina 1925
Currency: 1 Piaster = 40 Para 1925-1929, 1 Riyal = 11 Garch 1929-1931, 1 Sovereign = 110 Guerche 1931-1932
Population: 2 439 000 in 1932
Political history Nejd
Nejd is located on the Arabian peninsula in western Asia. The emirate of Nejd is founded in 1902 by the Saud dynasty after the conquest of Riyadh, which is captured from the emirate of Jabal Shammar. The emirate of Nejd is proclaimed a sultanate in 1921. After the conquest of the kingdom of Hejaz in 1925, the sultan of Nejd is proclaimed king of Hejaz in personal union in 1926. The sultanate of Nejd is elevated to the kingdom of Nejd in 1927 and is internationally recognized as the kingdom of Nejd & Hejaz. In 1932, the name of the kingdom is changed to Saudi Arabia.
Nejd, and later Nejd & Hejaz and Saudi Arabia, steadily increase their power on the Arabian peninsula. To the east, the Al Hasa region is conquered from the Ottoman empire in 1913 . To the south, Nejd, in 1920, occupies Upper Asir, which in 1923 becomes a Nejd protectorate. Asir has gained independence from the Ottoman empire as an emirate in 1914. To the north, Nejd conquers independent emirates between 1921 until 1923, among them the emirate of Jabal Shammar, until then a rival of Nejd for the control of the region. Again, to the south, the Yemenite Najran region and the remainder of Asir become Nejd protectorates. Finally, through the treaty of Taif in 1934, Asir – including Upper Asir – and Najran become part of Saudi Arabia.
In the north, the borders with Jordan, Iraq and Kuwait – all under British control – are defined through treaties in the 1920’s. Jordan, through these treaties, acquires the Ma’an region, formerly claimed by Hejaz and Nejd. With Iraq and Kuwait, neutral zones are agreed upon. Negotiations on these neutral zones are postponed to a later date. In fact, the neutral zone with Kuwait will exist until 1970 before an agreement is reached, with Iraq an agreement is reached in 1980. In the south, the borders with Yemen are, in part, defined through the treaty of Taif in 1934. In the ‘Rub al Khali'‘Empty Quarter’ the borders remain de facto borders which will be defined in the late 20th, early 21st century – the borders with Qatar and United Arab Emirates still having to be ratified to this day.
Saudi Arabia – once one of the least developed countries in the world – has, since oil was found in 1938, developed into the the largest oil exporter in the world and an important regional power.
Postal history Nejd
In those parts of Nejd that were part of the Ottoman Empire, Turkish stamps have been used until these parts were conquered by Nejd – Al Hasa – or gained independence – Asir, Hejaz. The kingdom of Hejaz subsequently issued stamps from 1916 to 1925.
Nejd issued its first stamps in 1925 after the conquest of Hejaz. The first issues are overprints on available Turkish stamps, on Hejaz postage and revenue stamps and on revenue stamps issued by the Hejaz railway – a railway constructed by the Ottomans to transport their troops across the Arabian peninsula. These stamps were issued in the name of the sultanate of Nejd. The first definitives are issued in 1926. These and subsequent stamps are inscribed ‘Hejaz & Nejd Post’.Scott lists the issues from 1926 onward as being issued by the kingdom of Hejaz & Nejd, Michel lists the issues from 1927 as such. Scott possibly taking the the year that the sultan of Nejd assumed the throne of the kingdom of Hejaz, Michel taking the year that the sultanate of Nejd was elevated to the kingdom of Nejd. The Hejaz & Nejd issues are from 1934 superseded by the issues of Saudi Arabia.
In 1925, stamps are issued for Jeddah and Medina to commemorate the visit of the sultan of Nejd to these cities. The overprints read ‘The sultanate of Nejd Post – 1344 – Commemorating Jeddah (or Medina)’, 1344 being 1925 in the Arab calendar.