General issues: Federation of British possessions 1954-1963
Country name on general issues: Rhodesia & Nyasaland
Currency: 1 Pound = 20 Shilling, 1 Shilling = 12 Pence 1954-1963
Population: 10 492 in 1960
Political history Rhodesia & Nyasaland
The federation of Rhodesia & NyasalandAlso known as the Central African Federation. is located in what the United Nations currently calls eastern Africa. The federation is formed by Northern and Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland – all British possessions. Northern and Southern Rhodesia have, from 1889, been gradually brought under British control by the British South Africa Company, a chartered company. As political entities, the protectorates of Northern and Southern Rhodesia have been formed in 1911. As the charter of the British South Africa Company ends in 1924, the administration of Southern Rhodesia is transferred to the British government in 1923, that of Northern Rhodesia in 1924. Nyasaland is the successor to the British protectorate of British Central Africa – established in 1891. British Central Africa is renamed Nyasaland in 1907.
The federation of Rhodesia & Nyasaland is formed in 1953 for political and economical reasons by the white minority governments in the participating countries. The federation was aimed at prolonging the economically and politically privileged position of the white minorities. In particular, the smaller white minorities in Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland are expected to be able to take advantage of the politically and economically stronger position of the white minority in Southern Rhodesia. The political status of the federation may be compared to that of a British dominion: a state under British sovereignty but with a large amount of self government.
The black majority rejects the federation and, after increasing opposition and protests, the federation is dissolved in 1963. In 1964, Northern Rhodesia will gain independence as the republic of Zambia and Nyasaland will also gain independence within the British Commonwealth as Malawi. Southern Rhodesia will, in 1964, change its name to Rhodesia and in 1965 unilaterally declare independence. In 1980, the independence of Rhodesia will be recognized as the republic of Zimbabwe.
For a country diagram showing the political developments please refer to the diagram of British Central Africa.
Postal history Rhodesia & Nyasaland
The first stamps used in the participating countries in the federation are in Northern and Southern Rhodesia, from 1890 those of the British South Africa Company and in Nyasaland, from 1891 those of British Central Africa. Nyasaland has subsequently issued stamps from 1908, Northern and Southern Rhodesia from 1925. The issues of the individual countries will be superseded, from 1954, by the issues of the federation. The stamps of the federation of Rhodesia & Nyasaland have been used until 1964, when they were superseded again by the issues of the individual countries.